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Discuss how smoking is a risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis exam question

Cigarette Smoking and Progression of Atherosclerosis: The

Recognize stress as a major player in atherosclerosis development and discuss with patient, implement stress management therapies when necessary. Therapies: Psychotherapy, exercise, meditation, improved personal relationships, conflict resolution Atherosclerosis is a disease of the arteries characterized by the deposition of plaques of fatty material on their inner walls, by definition you can't induce atherosclerosis in the cell lines but. Which modifiable risk factor should the nurse discuss when teaching about atherosclerosis? stress. The client asks the nurse, My doctor just told me that atherosclerosis is why my legs hurt when I walk. What does that mean? Which response by the nurse would be the best response Atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is characterized by patchy intimal plaques (atheromas) that encroach on the lumen of medium-sized and large arteries; the plaques contain lipids, inflammatory cells, smooth muscle cells, and connective tissue. Risk factors include dyslipidemia, diabetes, cigarette smoking, family history, sedentary lifestyle. Smoking damages your arteries. Quitting smoking is the best thing you can do to keep your arteries healthy and prevent atherosclerosis complications. Exercise most days of the week. Regular exercise improves blood flow, lowers blood pressure, and reduces your risk of conditions that increase the risk of atherosclerosis and heart disease

Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside your arteries. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries. Learn more about causes, risk factors, screening and prevention, signs and symptoms, diagnoses, and treatments for atherosclerosis, and how to participate in clinical trials The risk factors are easy to spot. You can use the same tools your doctor uses to learn where you stand. What Raises Your Chances of Atherosclerosis. To get started, consider your medical history. Cigarette smoking (CS) continues to be a major health hazard, and it contributes significantly to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Cigarette smoking impacts all phases of atherosclerosis from endothelial dysfunction to acute clinical events, the latter being largely thrombotic Atherosclerosis -- or hardening of the arteries -- is the leading cause of heart attacks, strokes, and peripheral vascular disease. Find out more about atherosclerosis causes, symptoms, risk.

The most likely answer is that low HDL is a marker for other risk factors that do increase risk. Dr. Sekar Kathiresan, one of the coauthors of the article cited above was quoted in the New York Times as saying that a number of other risk factors track with low HDL, including obesity, being sedentary, smoking, insulin resistance, having small. Discuss three key factors that contribute to the development of diabetic foot infections (DFI). (6 marks) Note the examiner has specified three factors, and that you should discuss them rather than just list them out. 1 point for each factor listed, 1 point for explaining why each factor is significant in DFI.I have put down four below. The discussions could be simplified further in the exam 12. Which of the following in not a risk factor for CHD in both men & women ? A. Elevated cholesterol levels B. Elevated total triglyceride C. Hypertension D. Smoking 13. Which of the following is an independent risk factor for CHD in women but not in men ? A. Obesity B. Low HDL cholesterol C. Diabetes D. Elevated total triglyceride 14

(Total for question = 2 marks) Q18. Smoking is a risk factor for the development of the disease atherosclerosis. Damage to the artery wall may lead to atherosclerosis. Figure 6 shows a part of a normal human artery and a part of an artery with atherosclerosis The presence of two other risk factors with smoking results in approximately eight times the risk (2 × 2 × 2) of persons with no risk factors. Cigarette smoking also is a cause of peripheral arterial disease ( PAD ), aortic aneurysm, CHD, and cerebrovascular disease, but the relative risk ( RR ) of disease varies with the vascular bed. A low-fat, low-cholesterol diet will help decrease development of atherosclerosis. Losing weight will help decrease the pressure on the AAA and will help address decreasing the cholesterol level. The client should not decrease tobacco use—he or she must quit totally. Smoking is the one modifiable risk factor that is no suggests that smoking cessation may have potential benefits in reducing the incidence of stroke in blacks. Key Words: blacks cigarette smoking Jackson Heart Study stroke S troke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortal-ity,1,2 and cigarette smoking is a known indepen-dent risk factor for the development of stroke.3- QUESTION 6 1. Each of the following is a risk factor for the development of acute otitis media EXCEPT: a. Breastfeeding b. Group child care attendance c. Respiratory viral infection d. Ambient tobacco smoke QUESTION 7 1. Mikayla is a 15-month-old female who has had recurrent bouts of acute otitis media

Smoking and Cardiovascular Disease Arteriosclerosis

A high triglyceride level combined with high LDL (bad) cholesterol or low HDL (good) cholesterol is linked with fatty buildups within the artery walls, which increases the risk of heart attack and stroke. Watch an animation about cholesterol. Watch an animation about atherosclerosis In lay man's language, it is the hardening or sclerosis of the arteries. Fatty plaque, a thick cheesy-looking substance clogs the arteries, the hallmark, so to say, of atherosclerosis. A certain extent of atherosclerosis is considered normal, an age-related progression. It is one of the many changes that occur within our body, unknown to us NURS 231 Pathophysiology ALL EXAM MODULE VESRION 2 ALL VERIFIED EXAM QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Path 231 exams reviews Exam 1 Question 1 2.5 / 2.5 pts True/False: Persistent metaplasia can lead to dysplasia. Correct! True False Question 2 0 / 2.5 pts True/False: Barrett esophagus is an example of dysplasia. You Answered True Correct Answer False Question 3 2.5 / 2.5 pts. Hey, I just did the sample exam for the new study design from 2010, but there are no answers. So I post this here for a guide, or if you want to contribute, feel free. The 2010 sample exam can be found on the vcaa website if you hadn't seen it it. SECTION A Question 1 a. Define 'burden of disease'

Smoking and Your Heart NHLBI, NI

  1. ate high blood pressure, it almost always makes a difference. In fact, the small choices you make [
  2. Because of space limitations, we do not cover other common risk factors for atherosclerosis, including smoking, hyper-homocysteinemia, or inflammatory factors. In this review, we also leave aside cerebral amyloid angiopathy, a type of cerebrovascular disease closely associated with the cerebral hallmarks of AD as well as the mutual risk factor.
  3. Yes. First, there's the hard way which is diet and exercise. These are the least invasive ways of reducing your risk of atherosclerosis. Keeping your weight down also helps since a high BMI is a huge risk factor for atherosclerosis (yes, I know BM..
  4. African-American participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study were used to validate the multiple lipid measure score. For nonsmokers, scores > or = 2 had a hazard ratio of 4.25 (95% CI 1.92-9.40) compared to reference scores of < or = -3 in adjusted survival analysis predicting incident coronary heart disease risk.

2. What are the risk factors for progression of subclinical atherosclerosis and other forms of subclinical CVD? a. Are there new risk factors that are important predictors after accounting for the effect of traditional risk factors? b. Does the risk associated with these factors vary among different gender and ethnicity subgroups? c Cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, obesity and smoking are considered as risk factors for both cognitive decline and dementia [1, 11, 15]. There is suggestive evidence that lifestyle factors may contribute to, or be protective of, cognitive decline and dementia, one such example being physical. For Optimal Use: Estimate patient's 10-year ASCVD risk at an initial visit to establish a reference point. Forecast the potential impact of different interventions on patient risk. Reassess ASCVD risk at follow-up visits. Follow up risk incorporates change in risk factor levels over time and requires both initial and follow up values Smoking: Decrease risk by quitting smoking. Risk may be increased further with the use some forms of oral contraceptives and are a smoker. There is recent evidence that long-term secondhand smoke exposure may increase the risk of stroke. High blood pressure: Blood pressure of 140/90 mm Hg or higher is the most important risk factor for stroke

→macrophages, necrotic core, risk factors (smoking, hypertension, hyperglycemia, high LDL, inflammation). On a sketch of a coronary artery, show the mechanisms of stable angina and unstable angina (two subtypes of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease -- ASCVD) including the resulting disruption in myocardial oxygen supply/demand balance and the effect on downstream myocardial cells Discuss the primary risk factors such as obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, and hereditary factors. Most importantly, review life-style modifications and risk reduction. Describe the benefits of nutritional and weight management, as well as the benefits of physical activity

This patient's 10-year risk of heart disease or stroke is 5.5% using the AHA/ACC calculator, but this calculator does not take into account the patient's additional risk factors, including her family history and her chronic kidney disease (CKD) This disease causes premature atherosclerosis due to chronic steroid use, inflammation, hyperlipidemia, and renal disease. 17 Long-term steroid use is itself a risk factor due to increased insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, central obesity formation, and hypercoagulability. 18 Pregnancy is also a risk factor for acute MI, with risk increased. Cigarette smoking is by far the most dangerous behavior that causes people to develop emphysema, and it is also the most preventable cause. Other risk factors include a deficiency of an enzyme called alpha-1-antitrypsin, air pollution, airway reactivity, heredity, male sex, and age. The importance of cigarette smoking as a risk factor for developing emphysema cannot be overemphasized Cigarette smoking is the single most important modifiable risk factor to prevent occurrence and growth of AAAs. Smoking increases the rate of growth by 35% for abdominal aortic aneurysms. Medical therapy has been studied with disappointing results A need for further public education to increase awareness of stroke warning signs was identified, and all healthcare professionals were encouraged to become involved in community education. 300 In 1998, a population-based interview was conducted in the greater Cincinnati, Ohio, area to establish the public's knowledge of risk factors and.

Objectives To document the prevalence of tobacco use among male diabetes patients in a clinic based population of Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia; to examine patient's perceptions of smoking as a risk factor for diabetes complications; and to investigate whether patients had received cessation messages from their doctors.. Method Twelve in‐depth interviews and five focus groups (n = 21. William B. Kannel, Thomas R. Dawber, Abraham Kagan, Nicholas Revotskie, and Joseph Stokes III, Factors of risk in the development of coronary heart disease : Six-year follow-up experience The Framingham study, Annals of internal medicine, 55/1 (1961), 33-50. William Rothstein has pointed out that related terminology was used by life insurers. Several years ago, the American Heart Association added inactivity to its list of risk factors, which also includes family history, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes and obesity. In honor of American Heart Month , try to include at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity, such as walking or gardening, on most days of the week Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a general term for conditions affecting the heart or blood vessels. It's usually associated with a build-up of fatty deposits inside the arteries (atherosclerosis) and an increased risk of blood clots.. It can also be associated with damage to arteries in organs such as the brain, heart, kidneys and eyes Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major worldwide health problem that has an increasing prevalence and mortality (1, 2).Oxidative stress, which can be defined as an increased exposure to oxidants and/or decreased antioxidant capacities, is widely recognized as a central feature of many diseases (3, 4).Considerable evidence now links COPD with increased oxidative stress (5, 6)

The main risk factor for stroke is high blood pressure. Other risk factors include tobacco smoking, obesity, high blood cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, a previous TIA, end-stage kidney disease, and atrial fibrillation. An ischemic stroke is typically caused by blockage of a blood vessel, though there are also less common causes This is a measure of cardiovascular risk. In adults, high blood cholesterol levels undoubtedly play a role in the development of atherosclerosis and premature coronary heart disease. In order to prevent adult CHD, pediatricians must take an active role in monitoring childhood risk factors and promoting healthy behaviors in children Dr. Caballero: Major cardiovascular risk factors, such as increased LDL cholesterol and blood pressure, diabetes and smoking, lead to oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, which are mediated by a decrease in the availability of nitric oxide and increased tissue ACE and angiotensin II activity. These abnormalities promote all of the.

Cardiovascular Diseases - How Tobacco Smoke Causes Disease

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age. Although PCOS is diagnosed exclusively based on reproductive criteria, it is also a metabolic disorder. Insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and dyslipidemia are more common in women with PCOS than in age-comparable women without PCOS Common Risk Factors for Erectile Dysfunction. Getting and keeping a firm erection might take longer and become as difficult as you age. Consequently, you might need a direct touch to your penis to achieve and maintain an erection. Here are some of the risk factors [8] that might contribute to erectile dysfunction: Certain Medical Condition Nonmodifiable risk factors for CVD include older age, male sex, and race/ethnicity; however, statin trials have not included persons with only these risk factors. Other risk factors, such as family history of premature coronary artery disease, have not been demonstrated to improve risk prediction in a clinically meaningful way. 1

Aspirin is recommended for adults with a 10-year risk of a coronary event below 5%, for men younger than 50, and for women younger than 60 with no additional risk factors. In men aged ≥50 years and in women aged ≥60 years with type 1 or type 2 DM plus an additional risk factor, aspirin should be used for secondary prevention Emphasis should be placed on reducing cardiovascular risk factors, when possible, and clinicians should be alert for signs and symptoms of atherosclerosis. A. Blood pressure control Hypertension (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg) is a common comorbidity of diabetes, affecting 20-60% of people with diabetes, depending on age, obesity, and ethnicity PAD and CVD are significant risk factors for postoperative death, 4 major adverse cardiac events (MACE), 16 and myocardial injury after major noncardiac surgery. 17 Further, CVD is associated with a 2- to 3-fold increase in the risk of acute stroke after major noncardiac surgery 18,19 and vascular surgery. 20 As acute stroke is a devastating.

The exception to this is patients with multiple atherosclerotic risk factors with a markedly abnormal exercise test. In one study, the 6-year event-free survival was 67% in this group versus 98% in patients with risk factors but a normal or mildly abnormal ETT and 99% in those without risk factors regardless of the test result. 3 After adjusting for risk factors known to increase a person's chances of developing the condition, including age, sex, body-mass index, neck circumference, smoking, and income status, people with severe OSA were found to have a 30% higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes than people without OSA Kono K, et al. Development and validation of a fall risk assessment index for dialysis patients. Clin Exp Nephrol 2018;22:167-172. Jung HY, et al. Relating factors to severe injury from outdoor falls in older people. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018;18:80-87. Lank PM, Crandall ML Erectile Dysfunction. Erectile dysfunction (ED), formerly called impotence, can affect men of all ages, although it is much more common among older men. It is normal for men to occasionally experience ED. However, if the problem becomes chronic, it can have adverse effects on relationships, emotional health, and self-esteem The most modifiable risk factor for heart disease is smoking, which leads to increased obstruction of the coronary arteries. Each cigarette also causes spasms in these arteries. Smokers have twice the risk of heart attacks as nonsmokers, and death rates for heavy smokers are two to three times that of nonsmokers

Risk Factors for Atherosclerosis - News-Medical

Risk Factors . The risk factors associated with the development of peripheral atherosclerosis are similar to those associated with the development of coronary atherosclerosis. Risk factors for peripheral arterial disease should be identified and treated to reduce the likelihood or progression of atherosclerosis (Table 2) Globally, many of the risk factors for heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases are due to lifestyle and can be prevented. Physical inactivity, Western diet, alcohol and smoking are prominent causes for the NCDs and its risk factors. Tobacco is number one enemy of public health (WHO, 2000)

Atherosclerosis - Causes, Risk Factors, Symptoms

Prevention Is Key Screening Catches Health Problems Early. Health screening tests are important for every woman. They can help detect problems with bone mineral density such as osteoporosis, cancer, heart disease, and other conditions in the earliest stages when they can be treated most effectively.Exams can detect abnormalities before symptoms are apparent Unfortunately, in clinical practice, CVD risk factor management (eg, use of lipid-lowering therapy) is often underemphasized, resulting in reduced risk factor awareness and control among patients with CKD. Emerging data suggest that lipid-lowering therapy may provide vascular protection to patients with CKD across various stages of disease