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How many rafter ties do I need

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  1. For example, in the rafter span table below, the highlighted cell (in the 40# Live Load table), indicates that 2 x 8 Southern Yellow Pine joists, that have a grade of #2, that are spaced 24 apart, can have a maximum span of 10 feet - 3 inches (10-3) if designing for a live load of 40 lbs/ft 2
  2. Put the rafter ties into position. The ends must be placed against the rafters which should have a ½ inch from the rafter's edges. Use a level before installing them permanently. They should be perfectly leveled. When you have the right measurement, nail them into place using three 10d nails on both ends
  3. You'll need to lay down a 2×4 on its edge at the apex of the two rafters to act as a ridge board - for spacing. Get some scrap 2×4 pieces. Cut four of them into lengths of a couple of feet or so. Screw each piece so that there is one above and below each rafter. Do it carefully so that rafters are not out of place

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Rafter ties shall be spaced not more than 4 feet (1219 mm) o.c. Rafter tie connections shall be based on the equivalent rafter spacing in Table 2308.10.4.1 Simpson's instructions for which nail is used for nailing the strapping or tie-down to the framing lumber vary a bit by connector and its application but the most-common is the 8d (0.131 x 2 1/2) Nail. Here is a table of the fasteners speciried for the most-commonly-used Simpson Strong Tie Tie Down Connectors, cource as cited below The number of ties required per rafter will vary by situation. The rafter ties can generate tremendous force on the rafter to which it is connected. Purlins are often used in conjunction with rafter ties (see Appendix below for a figure) The rafters are about 14'-6 in length, roof pitch is 6:12. 2x6 collar tie is located about 30 below the bottom of the ridge board. Previously, these 2x6 members were at the top plate level acting as ceiling joists/rafter ties, but it's been opened up to create an open space Collar ties, contrary to popular belief, do not prevent walls from spreading. Rafter Ties. A rafter tie is a tension tie in the lower third of opposing gable rafters that is intended to resist the outward thrust of the rafter under a load. The roof framing mock-up below shows a standard rafter tie

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Simpson Strong-Tie catalog specifications and Simpson Strong-Tie connectors are properly installed in accordance with applicable building codes. All warranty obligations of Simpson Strong-Tie Company Inc. shall be limited, at the discretion of Simpson Strong-Tie Company Inc., to repair or replacement of the defective part Rafter ties- keep walls from spreading. ceiling joists often serve as rafter ties. The lower in the roof they are, the more effective they are. Typically nailed to the base of opposing rafters w/5- 16d through each lap and toe-nailed to the top plate. Collar ties- go in the upper third of the roof and prevent uplift. Typically installed every. How many nails you should use depends on the size of the top plate. For a 2×4 top plate, use three toenails, alternating sides. For a 2×6 top plate, use five toenails, again alternating sides with each nail Then you do not need rafter ties. BA . RE: Rafter Ties on Hip Roof? quasi904 (Structural) (OP) 28 Oct 13 12:50. The slope was an aesthetic choice and it allowed for smaller hip joists since dropping them on that pitch meant that the birds mouth at the rim wasn't too deep to significantly weaken it. I could go with a slightly higher pitch and.

The thing about keepoing the ties in the lower third has to do with whether it will funcion as a rafter tie to keep the walls from spreading with no styructural ridge. What these guys are hitting on is that it can trnsfer aa point load to the rafter at the cconnection point so the rafter needs to be large enough to handle that How many Rafter ties do I need? Rafter ties amount to an additional framing member that runs above the ceiling joists and that connects opposing rafters. They are generally required every 4 ft., which means that you need a rafter tie only for every other pair of 24-in. o. c. rafters or for every third pair of 16-in http://www.homebuildingandrepairs.com/framing/index.html Click on this link for more information about roof framing. This video is part of a series on house. Step 2 - Cut Collar Ties. In order to install the collar ties, you will need to cut the 2 by 6 lumber to length. The measurement must be taken from a point at 3/4 of the way up the roof rafters to the same point on an adjacent rafter. Depending on the roof, this measurement may be different for each rafter. For added strength, you can stagger.

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Do you need collar ties on every rafter

Nov 27, 2007. #5. You can use the collar ties on every rafter to avoid and replace the ceiling joists. The lower the collar ties are, the more effective they'll be. The steeper the roof, the more this method will get you. My 12x20 tractor shed is built this way too and those collar ties make a darn fine deer hanging point For securing your joists that land over beams, is it okay to toe nail the beams in from both sides, or is it best to use a hurricane tie like the strong-tie H2.5? My deck has two levels, 12 off grade at highest point, and 24 for second level Collar Tie and Beam A collar tie or beam (Figure 7-7) is a piece of stock (usually 1 x 4, 1 x 6, l x 8, or 2 x 4) fastened in a horizontal position to a pair of rafters between the plate and the ridge of the roof. This type of beam keeps the building from spreading. Most codes and specifications require them to be 5 fee An essential part of planning a patio roof or gazebo project is determining the number, size, and spacing of rafters, beams, and posts, according to the loads they will carry. Maximum Rafter Spans for a Patio Roof. In areas with mild climates, patio roofs are generally designed for loads of 30 psf (pounds per square foot) Hurricane ties are hardware pieces that connect the joists to cantilevered beams to reduce uplift forces caused by high winds. These are inexpensive and are a good precaution to use wherever high winds may be a problem, especially in zones where hurricanes and tornadoes are common

ceiling - How much space do I need between rafter ties

  1. e. My rafters are 2x6, and I can't for the life of me knotch out the rafters (LOL you should have seen my goat house, ohhh my, I have to replace the roof on this it.
  2. Simpson Strong-Tie category Roof Truss and Rafter Connectors, Ties, and Straps for Cold-Formed Steel Constructio
  3. When the rafter ties are raised above the tops of the walls, the code applies an adjustment factor to the connection, with more nailing required the higher the tie is raised. As an extreme example, with a 70-psf snow load, an 18-foot rafter span, 24-inch on-center rafter spacing, and rafter ties raised to their maximum 1/3 height, a 1.5.
  4. 10m ÷ 1.250m = 8 (Number of Tiles Needed for One Row) 585m ÷ 0.369m = 8 (Number of Rows Needed, Rounded Up) 8 x 8 = 64 (Number of Tiles Needed for One Side of the Roof) 64 x 2 = 128. If we account for 5% wastage and round up, this means we'll need 135 tiles for our project
  5. ing the quantity of trusses and lineal feet required. Connector plates are generally 16 gauge to 20 gauge.
  6. Roof assemblies shall have rafter and truss ties to the wall below. Resultant uplift loads shall be transferred to the foundation using a continuous load path. The rafter or truss to wall connection shall comply with Tables 2304.9.1 and 2308.10.1. TABLE 2308.10.1 REQUIRED RATING OF APPROVED UPLIFT CONNECTORS (pounds)a,b,c,e,f,g,h b
  7. X 2 (rafter length )=4.5 2 +3.5 2. X=5.7m. Rafters are nailed side by side tie beam and struts. So we use the numbers of pieces of tie beams because they are also spaced at 1.2m center to center and multiply by 5.7m. 15 pcs of rafter (same as tie beam) multiply by 5.7 =85.5

Collar Ties vs. Rafter Ties - InterNACHI

  1. g calculator is extremely easy to use! You only need two values: The stud OC (on-center) spacing; and. The length of the wall. Remember: The regular OC stud spacing is 16, 19.2 or 24 inches. (OC spacing means measuring the distance between the centers of two adjacent studs .) If you would like to use the price section of our 2x4.
  2. ed by the length of your roof
  3. e your rafter spacing when working with this wider spacing is to convert the total number of feet you're working with into inches, and divide the number by 16. So for a pergola that is 20 feet wide, you would convert that number to inches-in this case that comes out to 240 inches-then divide it by 16 to get the.
  4. Position a collar tie flat against the corresponding sides of a pair of opposing rafters. Align the lower edge at each end with the marks on the rafters. Attach the ties to the sides of the.
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Rafter and Collar Tie Tension Equation. To establish the relationship discussed in the article, we need to observe that the sum of the angular momentums must be 0. Consider the following free body diagram (Figure 4). Figure 4: Free Body Diagram of the Rafter.Moments are summed about a point on the ridge of the roof The code around here for rafters, etc. is one tie on every other rafter. Click to expand... We are required to put either 1-h1 or 1-h2.5 on every rafter. if its a double girder truss or something like that it will typically require 2-h2.5's or more depending on what the engineering report says. 1 - 11 of 11 Posts Rafter Disadvantages. Again, these have been alluded to. Cost: When materials and the much-higher labor rate is factored in, rafters are the clear loser in the cost battle. Pace: The pace of building slows noticeably once the walls are up and work shifts to hand-building each and every rafter. If inclement weather rolls in, expect delays as the entire structure gets tarped to wait out the rain When Do I Need A Permit For An Accessory Building? Rafter ties (required if no ceiling joists are used) shall be minimum 2x4 connected to the rafters and spaced not more than 4 feet apart. Document B70-1122 Page 4 of 28 REV 12/14. 10. Pre-engineered manufactured roof trusses can be used in lieu of hand-cut rafters Hurricane Ties, also known as rafter ties, truss ties, or hurricane clips, are used for deck or roof framing to secure rafters, trusses, or joists to the wood framework. This is done to resist uplift and lateral forces, like those that come from a hurricane or severe storm. Hurricane clip is another name for a Hurricane tie or Hurricane strap

Shed/Garage Roof Truss | DIYnot ForumsHanson Carlen Architects Spokane: Blog

For Inch versions, directly under the main tab is a smaller 'Inch' tab for the Feet and Inch version. Drop Down Menus have M for Metric Versions. Allow for Ridge Thickness when determining Rafter Run to Outer Wall. eg: Half building width minus 1/2 ridge thickness. See Rafter Run to Outer Wall Calculator below Main Rafter Support Posts. The first thing we need to do is build the three main support posts that will carry the main ridge beam and rafters/roof. If you recall from Day 3 of Framing The Cabin we tripled up 16 foot 2x6s to form the main center post Hurricane Ties For Shed Roof Framing. It's important to use hurricane ties when framing your shed roof. In fact, almost all building codes across the United States require their use when framing a shed roof. These ties were developed to help strengthen the framing for roofs to help prevent damage from strong wind and seismic forces The first thing you need to do is determine how well your roof structure is attached to the walls. In older wood frame construction, the connection of roof trusses or rafters to walls is 2 or 3 sixteen penny (16d) nails driven at angles (toe nailed) through the rafter or truss into the top plate of the wall First of all, you need to build the trusses for the 12×12 shed. As you can easily notice in the diagram, you need to use 2×6 lumber for the bottom rafter and 2×4 lumber for the regular rafters. Make the angle cuts with a miter saw. Lay the rafters on a level surface and leave no gaps between them

Fastening plywood gussets. Hi, I will be fastening plywood gussets to my 2 by 6 rafters to deepen the bays for additional insulation in my attic. The plywood is 3/4 inch thick. Gussets will be 11 inches long, mounted onto 4.5 inches of the long side of the rafter and allowing me to deepen the rafter by a further 6.5 inches Simpson Strong-Tie 6-in 18-Gauge Steel Rafter Tie. The H2.5A single-sided hurricane tie is designed to resist moderate loads at the rafter/truss-to-top-plate connection. As part of a continuous load path, the H2.5A resists both lateral and uplift loads. The symmetrical design eliminates the need for separate right and left parts. View Mor Gable walls need to be strapped to the roof at the maximum 2m centres using 30 x 5m galvanised mild steel straps. Effective strapping at gable wall. Each strap should be fixed as shown in the diagram opposite with noggins between the rafters to support the metal strap along its whole length. Vertical strapping at eaves pitched roof

Option 1 - LRS may be fixed to horizontal noggings fitted tight between trussed rafters and packed between the last rafter and the wall, using four 50mm minimum x 4mm steel screws or four 75mm x 4mm (8SWG) round nails, with one fixing in the third rafter as shown below (clause 7.2.8 and Figure 1). Option 2 - LRS may be fixed to the 100mm. 11. Location. Denver, CO 80209, US. Oct 12, 2020. #1. Hi -I am framing a skylight and can not find a framing detail in the code except one for metal rafters. Figure R804.3.5 (1) My rafters are 2 x 6 on 20 centers with a 16' span with a 12:12 pitch. I will be removing one rafter and putting in a 30 wide x 39 tall skylight

Posted April 30, 2016. Ceiling ties (i.e. joists) can have a truss effect, if properly nailed. If you tried to use a collar tie for truss forces, it would require so many nails that the wood would split. (Same is true for ceiling joists in a low pitched roof.) Also, for a truss effect, you really need triangles of framing Use the drop downs to enter the long rafter, the short rafter, and how many rafters to get reliable results every time for every situation. Gable Stud Use this gable stud calculator to solve for the values of all the studs on 16″ center in a gable wall from the short one up or the long one down on all standard roof pitches Now if those rafter tails are blocked off or you used I-Joists, then the answer is that yes you need soffit venting in each bay. How much do I need? The long answer on this varies based on a simple formula - you need 1 SF for every 150 which is to be split equally from the ridge to the soffit A 2x8 up to 12 feet; 2x10 to 15 feet and 2x12 to 18 feet. The larger the deck, the larger the joists. In typical deck construction, with a ledger on one side of the joist and beam on the other, the size of the joists is driven by the size of the deck and based on the general maximum spans mentioned above. For best results, refer to our wood and. Furthermore, how many nails do you need for a rafter? Standard was 3 face nails, and for the toenailed side, 3 toenails in one side of the rafter and 2 in the other. I never heard that this was regulated by code, but more of an industry accepted standard. Kenton is mostly always right on

But they do tend to space rafters in one of several industry-standard increments, typically either 12, 16 or 24 inches apart. These spacing intervals are measured on center, meaning that the measurement is taken from the center of one rafter's horizontal surface to the center of the next rafter. Advertisement Determining whether you need central support for a roof truss ultimately comes down to why you need roof trusses. Generally, you don't need central support for domestic trusses. In industrial applications, trusses support enormous roofs made from heavy materials and thus generally require central support. Click to see full answer the rafters form the compression chords and the ties form the tension tie,now the joints must be designed for the loads just as a truss is which uses 2x4 members for outragious spans.glen can u do a few calcs showing the force polygon that woould result from a 30' spann with no ceiling joist but with collar ties at 1/3 up per code Then, do wall studs need to line up with floor joists? If you use stack framing for your trusses and wall studs, then it helps a lot to use the same spacing on your floor joists, so your wall studs can line up exactly with the floor joists.You can probably find in somewhere in the code that you can use 16, 19.2 (you said 19-6)or 24 inch spacing legally A double roof (using a Norman truss), common rafters supported by principal rafters (top chords in this case) and an unusual extra layer of common rafters on the lower half to form a gallerie. Note how the rafter poles for the gallerie tie-in. The Bequet-Ribault House was built c. 1793 near Ste. Geneviève, Missouri.It is one of five poteaux-en-terre buildings that survive in the US

Video: Rafter Ties and Shallow-Pitch Roofs JLC Onlin

Stock tools & supplies for your projects. Free UK Delivery on Eligible Order The collar ties join opposite rafters. Usually if the roof was deemed big enough for them, they were put onto every rafter. The hanging beams are packed up off the tops of the walls and support the ceiling joists, via timber droppers (50 x 50) nailed to both Toe-bearing rafters. One of the last things done on an addition is framing the roof. To tie a new roof into an existing roofline, rafters often bear on the toe rather than the heel of the seat cut or are notched too deeply over the top plate. These situations weaken the rafter at the bearing point and can split the rafter If rafter spans are less than 8 feet, headers (perpendicular rafters) nailed across the rafter ends are adequate for rafters that sit on top of beams. Snap a chalk line across the rafters where the blocking will go, and then work your way across the joists, measuring and notating the lengths of blocking you'll need

In lightweight timber roof construction under purlins were used to support rafters over longer spans than the rafters alone could span. Under purlins were typically propped off internal walls. For example, an 8 x 4 under purlin would support the center of a row of 6 x 2 rafters that in turn would support 3 x 2 roof purlins to which the roof. So if your house is 26 feet wide and the roof ridge beam is centered on the house, you will need a rafter that can span 13 feet. Let's use this example and find a size of rafter that will work. Looking through the center of the table, we can find a couple of options. The table states that 2 X 6 rafters spaced 16 inches on center (o.c) can span. 5. Measure your bracing joints accordingly. Depending on the design of the trusses you're making, any number of bracing joints will be necessary. A super-basic A-frame roof will require anywhere between 4 and 8, depending on the size of the rafters, with plumb cuts necessary for each angle in the brace

How it Works: Collar and Rafter Ties - Fine Homebuildin

Rafter: Rafter is a sloping beam (usually wood) that supports a pitched roof. There could be many rafters supporting a roof. There could be many rafters supporting a roof. It is one of a series of sloped structural members that extend from the ridge or hip to the wall plate designed to support the roof deck and its associated loads The Wall Stud Count calculator computes the number of studs (e.g. 2x4s) needed to build a wall based on the length of the wall and spacing.. Wall Stud Count Instructions (L) Enter the length of the wall.(oC) Enter the on-center spacing of the studs.The default is 16. Wall Stud Count (studs): The calculator computes the number of studs needed for the wall Thermal bridging will be minimal and easily managed with exterior insulation - yes I know your preferred techniques like to avoid foamboard at all costs but many of us are OK with thoughtful and limited use of this material. And rafter spread can always be handled with collar ties. I do like your idea of exterior attic access though

Rafter Ties Versus Ceiling Joists - Which One Do I Need

How to fix rafter straps. Engage at least three rafters with each strap. Straps of 5 x 30mm galvanised steel. Use corrosion resistant nails (3.35 x 65 mm) Pack between end rafter and wall. Nail noggings securely to the rafters. Straps to have at least 100mm downturn tight against a full block on the gable Strengthen the roof with rafter ties, and keep them level and aligned with each other. Remember to include space for ventilation and insulation. If you have more questions about how to build dormers on your roof, check out the section below. Tools You'll Need. Make sure you gather all of the necessary tools before you begin working. They include Rafter Boards: The boards creating the slope of the roof are wider than lumber used to build trusses - 2x8s, 2x10s and 2x12s are most common in rafters vs. 2x4s in trusses. Rafter boards are fastened to the ridge board at the peak and the top plate where they join the wall If the rafters need beefing up, additional floor joists or rafter ties can be sistered onto the existing ones. The building code also comes into play, depending on the nature of the loft. Codes vary across Canada, but generally, if the loft is a bedroom, you'll need a minimum ceiling height (usually around two metres), smoke and carbon. It also protects the rafter tails and trusses. In high wind climates, the soffit protects the houses from having winds blow water into the home. For North Carolina, winter storms and hurricanes often create winds over 25-35 miles per hour. Rafter Tails: Rafter tails are the bottom end of the rafters. These ends of the roofing material are.

Shingle: Overlapping tiles used as roof covering.. Underpurlin: Horizontal beams fixed under the rafters. Rafter: Diagonal piece of beam supporting the roof. Roofing Batten: A horizontal piece of timber or metal installed on top of the rafters. Purlin: Horizontal beams that sit on top of the rafters. Gutter Boards: Boards under the high point and just above the roof framing Hurricane ties may be an alternative to transfer shear between the roof and wall, but the use of these connectors does not negate the need for the boundary member. Installing a boundary member will require additional detailing to attain the needed ventilation without compromising the structural integrity of the roof diaphragm Rafter blocking is an essential part of the roof framing process in that the blocks provide a stop for ceiling insulation and a continuous surface for the roof sheathing to be edge nailed to. Each block is 2x4 or 2x6 depending on the size of the rafters, and is secured to the top plate Step 7: Collar ties Collar ties need a seat cut on each end and they need to be fixed level in order to get the benefit. The amount you'll need should be specified on a technical drawing If the rafters are at 900 centers I'd put a collar on every one, if they're 400 you can sometimes get away with every other Careful evaluation of collar ties (also known as rafter ties) should be performed for relatively long span roof and especially when height of collar ties (above low ends of rafters) is more than one-third of the ridge height. (2) Attic floor joists perpendicular to rafters

Rafter Span Tables - myCarpentr

3. Rafter Ties. Rafter ties on gable type roofs are usually horizontal wood pieces (often 2×4's or 2×6's) that help keep the exterior wall tops from spreading outwardly. Normally in the bottom third area of the rafters or sitting on the exterior wall top plate. Check for damage to rafter ties as well as their connection to the exterior walls With sails larger than 150 sqft, you should make sure the rafters have been secured with screws, and not just nails to the tops of the walls. Use of 4x4s or 4x6s, L-Brackets, long screws, or Simpson strong ties/hurricane hangers can be used in some combination to do this 1. Use three rafters. 2. Tie them together by nailing a 2X4 header across them for the top of the fan mount. 3. Tie them together in the same way for the bottom mount. Then. 4. build the ends with 2x4s such that the ends are parallel to the rafters on either end and scabbed on to the rafters

Installing Rafter Ties DoItYourself

You may use 1-inch by 4-inch cross-ties between rafters within the bottom third of the rafter span from the exterior walls, at a maximum of 4 feet in distance from the exterior wall plate. You may also use metal straps at the end of the rafters, or you may use metal tie connectors where the rafter meets the exterior wall plate Because rafters are stick-built on-site at the time of need, less advance planning is needed. Rafter Cons More Time-Consuming and More Costly. Stick-building rafters on the construction site is slower and takes more people. A large residential rafter roof might take a week to build Assuming that the span is 30ft wide free span,..gable ends; you will require to construct a French type roof truss...the main structural trusses (double tie) spaced at 2.4M with intermediate support trusses in-between again assuming the roof cov.. Flat Roof Framing. A basic flat carport roof is framed with two-by-six rafters that rest on four-by-twelve beams at the sides of the carport; one rafter at each end of the carport is a four-by-six.

How to Build Rafters for a Shed: Last Guide You'll Ever Nee

Rafter tie (and Tie-beams) Rafter ties are designed to tie together the bottoms of opposing rafters on a roof, to resist the outward thrust where the roof meets the house ceiling and walls. This helps keep walls from spreading due to the weight of the roof and anything on it, notably wet snow. In many or most homes, the ceiling joists also. Sounds like you are overkill now. You will need a collar tie every 4 feet, in your case, with 16 OC, every 3rd set of rafters and you DO want to do this. I assume the bottom of the rafters will tie into the ceiling joist to act as a rafter tie? My rafters went right on the side of the ceiling joist and was nailed to the top plate and to the. The rafters should be roughly 2'6 apart. The end rafters (red) should be approximately flush with the end of the headers. There are 2 rafters (green), side by side, in the center (to cover the seams where the 2x2s will meet). Use the rafter ties to attach the rafters to the headers. Make sure that 2 rafter ties are used per rafter (one on each. Roof Truss Prices. For a 2,000-square-foot home, roof truss installation typically costs between $7,200 and $12,000. You'll spend anywhere from $1.50 to $4.50 per square foot of building area for materials alone, or between $35 and $150 per truss, though extremely long and complex types can reach $400 each. Labor runs anywhere from $20 to $75.

Roof Truss Calculato

The hip roof framing calculator returns the value of the main rafter, the side rafter, the length of the hip, the height of the knee wall, and the lengths of the jack rafters. Select the following information by using the drop downs to enter values in feet and inches. Span for the main rafters (measure from outside of wall to outside of wall. Warm Roof Fixings - Super-7. Superior warm roof nails for fixing Kingspan or Celotex insulation between counter-batten & rafter. Powerful Super-7 fixings reduce warm roofing costs by virtue of less nailing - Pack Quantity 50. Read more. RRP 12 Building the Window Wall. 13 Setting the Frame. 14 Adding Plywood to the DIY Chicken Coop. 15 Nesting Box Wall Plywood. 16 Window Wall Plywood. 17 Building the Rafters for the DIY Chicken Coop. 18 Trimming Out the DIY Chicken Coop. 19 Run Wall Trim. 20 Nesting Box Wall Trim

Collar Ties, Rafter Ties, Purlins & Bracing JWK Inspection

What size concrete lintel do I need? The lintel should be installed with a minimum end bearing of 150mm, so measure your opening and add at least 300mm. Unlike steel lintels, a concrete lintel is often used in visible areas and painted if required. Supreme Prestressed Concrete Lintels stocked in sizes from 600mm to 3000mm Rafter To Ridge Beam Connection Framing Talk Calculator Structural Roof Plandsg. Code Pliant Construction. Span Tables For Lvl. Rafter Ties And Shallow Pitch Roofs Jlc. Floor joist span tables calculator open source wood find tools glulam ridge beam page 4 line 17qq lawriter oac 4101 8 01 roof ceiling construction ridge beam length calculator. For example, you'll have to place metal ties at each juncture between the rafters and the roof support timbers. The roof support timbers are precisely that—they are the horizontal 2×6's that are notched into each side of the posts and they hold the rafters that sit atop and perpendicular to them 19. The Arbor Idea. These plans work for building both an arbor and a pergola. There is a minor difference between the two - an arbor is usually connected to the house, while a pergola is a freestanding structure, but the techniques are the same. For extra shade, you can add vines or a latch (1 x 2s, 2s x 2s)

Q&A: When Are Collar Ties Needed? JLC Onlin

Kit Includes: (10) 2-inch Rafter Clips; 60 OWT-Lock #12 by 1-1/4 Hex HD Sharp Point (1/4-inch Hex) Approved to Use With ACQ Treated Lumber; Pre-Galvanized Stee