Hazardous microorganisms SlideShare

1. •Personnel working in a Microbiology Laboratory directly or indirectly with biological agents are at risk from exposure to hazards . •Adequate precautions/Safety measures to be taken to avoid biological health hazards. 2. 1. Group 1 - Unlikely to cause human disease 2. Group 2- cause disease, Hazardous to employees 3 Hazardous-waste Management Power-point Presentation (ppt) By Arkadeep Dey Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website TOPIC VII: BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT OF SOLID AND HAZARDOUS WASTE 6 It is convenient to measure biomass, rather than individual numbers of bacteria. The growth of microorganisms is termed exponential. = Where dX/dt is the growth of the biomass w.r.t time (mg/L min), µ is the growth rate constant (min-1) and X is the. 4. Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules & Amendments: Hazardous Waste (M & H) Rules 1989: Waste falling in any of the categories prescribed in the Hazardous Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1989. 18 categories and regulatory quantities specified. Hazardous Waste ( M & H) Amendment Rules 2000: 44 processes with waste streams.

HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT---PPT 1. HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT BY P.MD.RAFI MTECH- SVU 2. HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT DEFINITION: Any residues or combination of residues otherthan radioactive waste which by reason of its chemical reactivity or toxic, explosive, corrosive or other characteristics causes potential hazard to human or environment, either alone or when in contact with other wastes. • Bioremediation is the a biological degrading processes for the treatment of contaminated soils, groundwater and/or sediments, relying on microorganisms including bacteria and/or fungi to use the contaminant(s) as a food source with resulting degradation of the contaminant These hazardous microorganisms, or pathogens, will be discussed in more detail later. Many microorganisms are beneficial. Certain kinds of yeast, molds and bacteria help make cheese, sour cream, yogurt and other fermented dairy products. Particular kinds of yeast are used in making beer, wine an hazardous to patients when administered into body cavities, central nervous and vascular systems, eyes, and joints, and when used as baths for live organs and tissues. When CSPs contain excessive bacterial endotoxins (see . Bacterial Endotoxins Test 〈85〉), they are potentially most hazardous to patients when administered into the centra

Professional health hazards in a microbiology - SlideShar

  1. Certain microorganisms can digest fuels and solvents, or other substances that 6-trinitotoluene (TNT), and if genetically modified can cause the TNT to lose 50 - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 2cae3-ODA2
  2. tyres and industrial packaging. For hazardous waste focus is given to health care risk waste, pesticides, electronic waste (e-waste), metallurgical waste and other hazardous waste streams, such as batteries, fluorescent light bulbs and nuclear waste. Finally, the country's response to waste management . challenges is presented
  3. ADVERTISEMENTS: Read this article to learn about the biodegradation and bioremediation in details with diagrams. Biodegradation or biological degradation is the phenomenon of biological transformation of organic compounds by living organisms, particularly the microorganisms. Biodegradation basically involves the conversion of complex organic molecules to simpler (and mostly non-toxic) ones.
  4. Both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and fungi are effectively involved in the biodegradation of xenobiotics. These microbial transformations are sometimes fortuitous, a phenomenon quite common in microbiology. Xenobiotic compounds are often utilized as a source of energy, nitrogen, carbon, or sulfur by various microorganisms
  5. imum levels of a w for growth depending on other growth factors in their environments. One indicator of microbial response is their taxonomic classification. For example, Gram (-) bacteria are generally more sensitive to low a w than Gram (+) bacteria. Table 3-2 lists the approximate

Hazardous-waste management - Hazardous-waste management - Treatment, storage, and disposal: Several options are available for hazardous-waste management. The most desirable is to reduce the quantity of waste at its source or to recycle the materials for some other productive use. Nevertheless, while reduction and recycling are desirable options, they are not regarded as the final remedy to the. facilities in order to properly protect persons working with microorganisms. Safety in the laboratory is the primary concern. The three main elements of safe containment of microorganisms are (1) good laboratory practices and technique, (2) safety equipment, and (3) facility design. Microbiology Lab Practices and Safety Rules 1 Bacteria colonies on a petri dish. There are a variety of factors that influence dangerous microorganism growth, including temperature, pH levels, and moisture of the food. The USDA has coined a term for the temperature range that encourages bacterial growth: the Danger Zone. This temperature range, 40° F - 140° F, enables bacteria to grow.

Hazardous-Waste Management - SlideShar

  1. Hazardous microorganisms may be of donor origin or may have been introduced during tissue procurement, processing, storage and transfer. To reduce the possibility of bacterial, fungal or viral disease transmission, tissue samples must be sterilized before introduction into the recipient. Gamma irradiation allows for targeted reduction of.
  2. However, health-care waste is often not separated into hazardous or non-hazardous wastes in low-income countries making the real quantity of hazardous waste much higher. Health risks. Health-care waste contains potentially harmful microorganisms that can infect hospital patients, health workers and the general public
  3. ants, microorganisms are mostly heterogeneously distributed in foods, and their concentration seldom remains constant
  4. No More Stress! We have How Does Identifying Microorganisms Help The Medical Field Essay the solutions to your Academic problems.. At we have a team of MA and PhD qualified experts working tirelessly to provide high quality customized writing solutions to all your assignments How Does Identifying Microorganisms Help The Medical Field Essay including essays, term papers, research papers.

bacteria per gram, and the number of microorganisms on skin varies between 100 and 10000 per cm2. Many species of microorganisms live. Hospital hygiene and infection control 149 on mucous membranes where they form a normal ßora. None of these tissues, however, is infected. Microorganisms that penetrate the skin o Biomedical waste or hospital waste is any kind of waste containing infectious (or potentially infectious) materials. It may also include waste associated with the generation of biomedical waste that visually appears to be of medical or laboratory origin (e.g. packaging, unused bandages, infusion kits etc.), as well research laboratory waste containing biomolecules or organisms that are mainly.

Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups: gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria.The name comes from the Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram, who developed the technique.. Gram staining differentiates bacteria by the chemical and physical properties of their cell walls I'm a pre nursing student and was curious as to how much of the material from microbiology and chemistry is used during nursing school. component of the metaparadigm of nursing must be considered. Micro-organisms matter because they affect every aspect of our lives - they are in us, on us and around us. Microbiology is the study of all living organisms that are The field is concerned.

LDRs do not apply to hazardous waste from households or conditionally-exempt small quantity generators, waste sent to Clean Water Act (CWA) pretreatment and treatment systems or pesticide/container residue disposed by a farmer on their own land (See 40 CFR section 268.1).The LDR program applies to both generators of hazardous waste and facilities that treat, store or dispose of hazardous waste. Hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide is a liquid chemical sterilizing agent which is a strong oxidant and can destroy a wide range of microorganisms. It is useful in the sterilization of heat or temperature-sensitive equipment like endoscopes. In medical applications, a higher concentration (35-90%) is used Bacteria are the most important microorganisms to the food processor. Most are harmless, many are highly beneficial, some indicate the probable presence of filth, disease organisms, spoilage and a few cause disease. There are thousands of species of bacteria, but all are single-celled and fall into three basic shapes: spherical, straight rods.

Biological treatment solid_hazardous_waste - slideshare

  1. utes. • The colder the storage temperature, the longer the potential shelflife. • Potentially hazardous foods should not remain in the danger zone (50-1400F) for more than 4 hours during the entire food handling process
  2. imum growth temperature o
  3. Managing Hazardous Materials Incidents is a three-volume set of recommendations for on-scene (prehospital) and hospital medical management of patients exposed during a hazardous materials incident. Volumes I and II are planning guides to assist first responders and hospital emergency department personne
  4. risk groups. Sensitising effects are known for fungi, bacteria and few parasites. Normally they affect the respiratory system but a few affect the skin. In addition, some biological agents may have a carcinogenic effect after a chronic infection
  5. fluid phases thus reducing surface and interfacial tension. Biosurfactants are produced by several microorganisms which include Acinetobacter sp., Bacillus sp, Candida antartica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The physiological role of biosurfactant production in microorganisms includes antimicrobial activity and the ability to make substrates readil
  6. Soil bacteria belonging to the genera Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium (and a few others) are capable of inducing the formation of nodules on roots of specific legumes (plants like peas, beans, peanuts, soybeans, alfalfa etc.) and fixing large quantities of nitrogen in these structures. In the nodule, the bacteria are supplied with carbon sources.

Hazardous waste ( management & handling - SlideShar

Genetically Modified Microorganisms Biosafety and Ethical Issues Douglas J. Stemke 1. Introduction Over the last 30 years, the ability to modify specific genes in microorganisms has revolutionized numerous fields of the biosciences, including medicine, agriculture, and basic research into life processes modified microorganisms were released into the environment and no disasters occurred [3]. Guidelines were later established by the American National Institute of Health to control possible hazardous effects of GMOs [4]. On the contrary, these guidelines were progressively weakened in subsequent years, despite substantia Microorganisms can survive in each and every extreme conditions on Earth, because of their metabolic activity. Bioremediation is highly involved in degradation, eradication, immobilization, or detoxification of diverse chemical wastes and physical hazardous materials from the environment through the all-inclusive and action of microorganisms animals, plants, and microorganisms, by other natural processes, and by industrial synthesis. Whilst the organic structures found in nature are created by many organisms and processes, microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) perform most of the biodegradation of both natural products and industrial chemicals. Collectively, microorganisms play

microorganism interactions. 1. Introduction Hazardous waste in India has been defined as any substance, excluding domestic and radioactive wastes, which because of its quantity and/or corrosive, reactive, ignitable, toxic and infectious characteristics causes significant hazards to human health o 1. Common hazardous substances. Hazardous substances can include. biological agents - such as fungi, bacteria, viruses. natural substances - such as grain, flour or enzyme dusts. substances generated by work - such as soldering or welding fumes, or wood dust. chemical products used or produced at work - such as adhesives or cleaning agents Bacteria. Chlorhexidine is a positively-charged molecule that binds to the negatively-charged sites on the cell wall; it destabilizes the cell wall and interferes with osmosis. 5 The bacterial uptake of the chlorhexidine is very rapid, typically working within 20 seconds. 1 In low concentrations it affects the integrity of the cell wall. Once the cell wall is damaged, chlorhexidine then.


Biological agents include bacteria, viruses, fungi, other microorganisms and their associated toxins. They have the ability to adversely affect human health in a variety of ways, ranging from relatively mild, allergic reactions to serious medical conditions—even death Bacteriocins: Classification, synthesis, mechanism of action and resistance development in food spoilage causing bacteria Microb Pathog. 2019 Mar;128:171-177. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2019.01.002. Epub 2019 Jan 3. Authors Rashmi Kumariya 1.

biochemical, or microbiological) to encourage microorganisms to destroy or detoxify organic and inorganic contaminants in the environment. The process can be applied above ground in land farms, tanks, biopiles, or other treatment systems (referred to as ex situ) or below ground in the soil or groundwater, referred to as in situ 4 Hazardous Waste Streams 4.1 Chemically Contaminated Waste Bin colour: yellow base with orange lid Final disposal method: incineration Filter paper, gloves, tissues, paper towel, benchcote, spent silica, and sample vials that have been contaminated with hazardous chemicals should be placed directly into a chemically contaminated waste bin o

Bioremediation - SlideShar

  1. g national economies, tourism and trade
  2. Definition of Terms Biological - bacteria, viruses, insects, plants, birds, animals, and humans, etc. Chemical - depends on the physical, chemical and toxic properties of the chemical. Environment - The circumstances or conditions that surround one Ergonomic - repetitive movements, improper set up of workstation, etc., Exposure - the condition of being exposed, especially to severe weather.
  3. Management of. solid waste involves col lection, segregation and secondary storage, transportation, tre atment and. final disposal of waste. 15.5.1 Indian guidelines for waste management. Indian.
  4. ated site is called bio-remediation. Such a biological treatment system has various applications, including, clean up of conta
  5. ently toxic and carcinogenic, and is extensively available in the form of oxides or sulfides or as a salt of iron, sodium, calcium, copper, etc. (Singh et al., 2007)

Introduction. Scientists first discovered in 1946 that DNA can be transferred between organisms (Clive 2011).It is now known that there are several mechanisms for DNA transfer and that these occur in nature on a large scale, for example, it is a major mechanism for antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria Microorganisms are widely distributed on the biospher because of their metabolic ability is very impressive and they can easely grow in a wide range of environmental conditions. The nutritional versatility of microorganisms can also be exploited for biodegradation of pollutants. This kind of process is termed as bioremediation This document provides general guidance for the management of Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) contaminated medical waste based on federal guidelines and standards. As of the date of this publication, there are no additional regulatory handling, marking, storage, transportation or treatment requirements for medical waste contaminated. Useful And Harmful Materials. Displaying top 8 worksheets found for - Useful And Harmful Materials. Some of the worksheets for this concept are Science, Microorganisms the good the bad and the ugly, Quiz 1 household hazardous pr oducts, Good bugs bad bugs, 10 ticks work answers, Lesson the hazards of common household chemicals grade 2, Lesson plan grades 5 8 grade level and subjects 5 8, The. Application of Effective Microorganism (EM) in Food Waste Composting: A review Siti Aminah Ab Muttalib 1, 2 , S h arifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail 1, 2 , Sar va Mangala Praveena 1,

Micro organisms friendly or enemy

microorganisms is primarily based on the ability to infect humans and cause disease. It is therefore entirely possible for an organism in Hazard Category 1 (i.e., unlikely to cause disease by infection) being classified as a Biological agent because of properties such as toxicity or allergenicity. 2. Microorganism Enzymes merely break up and liquefy FOG (fat, oil, grease) in wastewater, without digesting it. Our bacillus or wastewater treatment microbiology makes their own enzymes, depending on the substrate they need to break down, which then eliminates the problem; it's also aerobic and under some conditions, anaerobic DEFINITION. The water activity (a w) of a food is the ratio between the vapor pressure of the food itself, when in a completely undisturbed balance with the surrounding air media, and the vapor. Soil pollution refers to the contamination of soil with anomalous concentrations of toxic substances. It is a serious environmental concern since it harbours many health hazards. For example, exposure to soil containing high concentrations of benzene increases the risk of contracting leukaemia

  1. ation of the level of risk, it may be necessary to remediate those sites
  2. Ex situ Bioremediation Ex situ bioremediation involves removal of waste materials and their collection at a place to facilitate microbial degradation.Ex situ bioremediation technology includes most of disadvantages and limitations. It also suffers from costs associated with solid handling process e.g. excavation, screening and fractionation, mixing, homogenizing and final disposal
  3. Soils can harbor bacteria and other microorganisms and can physically block sanitizing chemicals from reaching the surface. After proper and effective cleaning has been done, your facility should the sanitize surfaces that have been cleaned. Sanitizing reduces the number of hazardous bacteria on a surface to levels that regulators consider safe
  4. For most people a complete understanding of the standard methods required to accurately complete critical wastewater analytical tests is not necessary. However, a fundamental understanding of the theory behind and working knowledge of the basic procedures used for each test, and the answers to commonly asked questions about each test can be a valuable tool for anyone involved in generating.
  5. NIOSH List of Antineoplastic and Other Hazardous Drugs in Healthcare Settings, 2016. Chemical Safety/NIOSH. Hazardous Drug Exposures in Health Care. Occupational Exposure to Antineoplastic Agents and Other Hazardous Drugs. Workplace Solutions: Medical Surveillance for Health Care Workers Exposed to Hazardous Drugs
  6. Bacteria can be killed or inhibited by different antimicrobial products, namely antibiotics that act against infections in humans or animals and biocides such as disinfectants and preservatives. Only products that act against bacteria are the focus of this assessment and not biocides used to control other micro-organisms or plants and animals
  7. Arsenic is a highly toxic metalloid and has posed high risk to the environment. As(III) is highly mobile in soil and leached easily into groundwater. The current remediation techniques are not sufficient to immobilize this toxic element. In the present study, an As(III) tolerant bacterium Sporosarci

PPT - Bioremediation PowerPoint presentation free to

The effects of microorganisms on their environment can be beneficial or harmful or inapparent with regard to human measure or observation. Since a good part of this text concerns harmful activities of microbes (i.e., agents of disease) this chapter counters with a discussion of the beneficial activities and exploitations of microorganisms as. Bacteria - the oldest living organisms on earth - are omnipresent. The human body, the air we breathe, the surfaces we touch, the food we eat, the plants that surround us, the environment we live in, etc., are all replete with bacteria. Almost 99% of these bacteria are helpful, where the remaining are notorious Bacteria can be found in soil, water, plants, animals, radioactive waste, deep in the earth's crust, arctic ice and glaciers, and hot springs. There are bacteria in the stratosphere, between 6. The most numerous types of bacteria are Tetrasphaera, Trichococcus, Candidatus Microthrix, Rhodoferax, Rhodobacter, Hyphomicrobium (McIllory et al., 2015). Among fungi, Ascomycetes are the most common, accounting for 6.3 to 7.4% of micro-organisms. Then come the archaeobacteria, with Euryarcheota (1.5% of micro-organisms, Wang et al., 2014b) Heavy metals are well-known environmental pollutants due to their toxicity, persistence in the environment, and bioaccumulative nature. Their natural sources include weathering of metal-bearing rocks and volcanic eruptions, while anthropogenic sources include mining and various industrial and agricultural activities. Mining and industrial processing for extraction of mineral resources and.

The microorganisms, decomposing the organic substance in the absence of oxygen, free compounds that are toxic, such as ammonia and hydrogen sulphide (H2S). The absence of oxygen reduces biodiversity causing, in certain cases, even the death of animal and plant species. All this happens when the rate of degradation of the algae b The EN 1276 standard specifies a suspension test for establishing whether a chemical disinfectant or antiseptic has bactericidal activity. Bactericidal or antimicrobial products are products manufactured to control and fight against certain populations of pathogenic microorganisms. The EN 1276 standard applies to products that are used in food. Microorganisms in food production [edit | edit source] Most commonly used microorganisms are yeast, bacteria, moulds, or a combination of these. A good example of microorganism usage in food production is the process of fermentation, which results in the production of organic acids, alcohols and esters. These help to either: Preserve the foo When a bacteria or virus enters the body, antigens found on these microorganisms will cause the body's immune system to form antibodies, Go to Hazardous Waste Regulations & Policy Ch 6

Biodegradation and Bioremediation (With Diagram

Xenobiotic Compounds and their Biodegradatio

microbiology. While similar in use, the two media vary in the carbohydrates they contain. The reaction of V. cholerae on KIA, which contains glucose and lactose, is similar to those of non-lactose-fermenting Enterobacteriaceae (K/A, no gas, no H 2S) Laboratory Identification of Vibrio cholera Figure: Instruments used in Microbiology Lab with Principle and Uses. Image created with biorender.com. 1. Analytical Balance. An analytical balance is a type of balance that is commonly used for the measurement of mass in the sub-milligram range Microbial degradation is the major and ultimate natural mechanism by which one can cleanup the petroleum hydrocarbon pollutants from the environment [ 24. R. M. Atlas, Petroleum microbiology, in Encyclopedia of Microbiology, pp. 363-369, Academic Press, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1992. View at: Google Scholar. See in References Our laboratory teams work evenings and weekends to ensure that you have faster access to your analysis results. Our clients can obtain results via the Internet. We can also pick up your samples. We conduct full microbiological testing of various food categories such as ingredients, raw fruits and vegetables, raw meat and poultry, dairy products. Microorganisms vary greatly in their resistance to chemical germicides and sterilization processes (Figure 1) 342 Intrinsic resistance mechanisms in microorganisms to disinfectants vary. For example, spores are resistant to disinfectants because the spore coat and cortex act as a barrier, mycobacteria have a waxy cell wall that prevents disinfectant entry, and gram-negative bacteria possess an.

Hazardous-waste management - Treatment, storage, and

The 4 Primary Food Safety Hazards and Preventing Foodborne

Risk Groups are classifications that describe the relative hazard posed by infectious agents or toxins in the laboratory. The risk group to which an infectious agent or toxin is assigned is the primary, but not only, consideration used in a biological risk assessment to determine the appropriate biosafety level in which a worker can handle the infectious agent or toxin Microorganisms play important roles in the maintenance of many natural and man-made phenomenon in the environment. addition to the ever-growing hazardous waste https://www.slideshare.net. a run-away chemical reaction (chemical energy), the release of compressed gas or steam (pressure; high temperature), entanglement of hair or clothing in rotating equipment (kinetic energy), or. contact with electrodes of a battery or capacitor (electrical energy). Please see the OSH Answers on Hazard Identification for more information LESSON 3: Practice Occupational Health and Safety Procedures. Learning Outcomes: At the end of this Lesson, you are expected to do the following: LO 1. Identify hazards and risks. LO 2. Evaluate and control hazards and risks. Learning Outcome 1: Identify hazards and risks. Occupational health and safety (OHS) is a planned system of working to. Types of Hazards. There are four types of hazards that you need to consider:. Microbiological hazards. Microbiological hazards include bacteria, yeasts, moulds and viruses. Chemical hazards . Chemical hazards include water, food contact materials, cleaning agents, pest control substances, contaminants (environmental, agricultural and process e.g. acrylamide), pesticides, biocides and food.

Radiation Sterilization - Stanford Universit

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is an in vitro assay that measures the presence of an antigen with very high sensitivity. RIA was first described in 1960 for the measurement of endogenous plasma insulin by Solomon Berson and Rosalyn Yalow of the Veterans Administration Hospital in New York. The classical RIA methods are based on the principle of. biotechnology in which living microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, algae and p rotozoa are used to degrade hazardous e nvironmental co ntaminants i nto less toxic or non-to xic co mpounds under. Laboratory Waste Disposal Procedure Summary. Make sure the materials placed in the municipal waste are suitable for this type of disposal, especially: Do not place any liquids in the municipal waste. Do not dispose of chemical waste, including stock containers with unused product, in the municipal waste. Empty or rinsed containers must be free.

Health-care wast

Smallpox, one of the biggest killers in history, is caused by a virus called variola. Variola causes a distinctive rash and is often lethal. The name variola comes from the Latin word for spotted and refers to the raised bumps that appear on the face and body of infected individuals. Although similar in name and in the formation of a rash. Bacteria, viruses, and parasites (including worms and protozoans), are the types of pathogens in wastewater that are hazardous to humans. Fungi that can cause skin, eye, and respiratory infections also grow in sewage and sewage sludge. Scientists believe there may be hundreds of disease-causing organisms present in sewage and wastewater that. A xenobiotic is a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced or expected to be present within the organism. It can also cover substances that are present in much higher concentrations than are usual. Natural compounds can also become xenobiotics if they are taken up by another organism, such as the uptake of natural human hormones by fish found downstream of. MICROBIOLOGY MODULE Methods of Isolation of Bacteria Microbiology 110 Notes zMicroscopic examination of sample zVarious methods used for isolation of bacteria Specimen collection Many different specimens are sent for microbiological examination from patients with suspected bacterial infection

Microbiological Examination - an overview ScienceDirect

211 11 Genetically M odi fi ed Microorganisms ( GMOs) for Biorem ediation. overexpressed. The product of mok gene is required. for the expression and regulation of hok translation. In this system. Bioremediation strategies. Bioremediation is the use of naturally occurring or genetically engineered microorganisms, most often microorganisms like bacteria or fungi, to consume and break down pollutants in contaminated media, including water (groundwater and surface water), soil and sediment. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.

How Does Identifying Microorganisms Help The Medical Field

Microbiome 101

Biomedical waste - Wikipedi

The bacteria, viruses, protozoans, fungi, parasitic worms, and prions (infectious proteins) that cause disease are called pathogens (discussed further in Chapter 13a). Note that this term does not apply to most of the microorganisms we encounter. Many bacteria, for example, are actually beneficial Biological waste items that can cut, but are not intended to do so (fragile glass, glass slides and cover slips, razor blades, pipettes and pipette tips), should be disposed of in a manner that prevents harm. Use: Sharps Box. (smaller) rigid box that is then placed in a biohazard bag. plastic sleeve (to hold the pipettes together in a bundle.

Pesticides Degradation Through Microorganisms (Biodegradtion)BioremediationSoil Pollution