h.265 bitrate chart Hikvision CCTV camera bitrate and maximum bitrate settings for your CCTV system. Here are the recommended bitrates for Hikvision CCTV cameras Alibi H.264/H.265 Bandwidth Chart. Resolution FPS H.264 Bit Rate (kbps) H.265 Bit Rate (kbps) 12MP (4000x3000) 20 15360 7680 12MP (4000x3072) 20 15360 7680 9MP (3072x3072) 20 12288 6144 9MP (4096x2160) 20 11520 5760 8MP (3840x2160) 20 12288 6144 6MP (3072x2048) 20 7680 3840. the predefined Max. bitrate value. With H.265+ on, the average bitrate can be kept as the half value of the Max. bitrate (take the office surveillance as the example, the actual bitrate reduction rate may vary with different surveillance scenes) and the image quality can be optimized since the H.265+ technology makes full use of every bit
Our 2018 line (and a few other company's 2018 lines) records with a new more efficient file H.265 compression, so that you can stream video about at almost half the normal bitrate with the about the same quality recording. H.265 replaces H.264. H.26X is block-oriented motion-compensation-based video compression
The table below illustrates the results of converting the file using different Constant Quality options - all into 1080p video. For each of these conversions, I used identical settings except I changed the Constant Quality option in HandBrake. Each of these used the H.265 (NVenc) encoder with all the other video options on their default settings As H.265+ is a new technology there isn't currently any data online about exactly how many Mbps cameras use while running the codec. However, assuming there is roughly a 67% improvement on H.265 we can calculate the below: 3MP - 0.9 Mbps 5MP - 1.4 Mbp Bitrate Needed for one H.265 4K (which is 4x 1080P) camera (w/ sub-stream) for 4K looking video. 5 Mbps: A less extreme example: Let's compare our 4Mbps cameras to a 2Mbps camera This example is often seen when comparing budget level IP POE cameras and more professional solutions, like SCW . Even.
Estimate video bitrate! Uncompressed bitrate. Megapixels: 2.1 MP (2,073,600 pixels) Aspect ratio: 1.78:1 (HD 16:9) 1 frame of RGB 3x8bit: 6.22 M B (2.1 MP x 24 bits) Interlaced: 24 fps x 6.22 M B x 50% (interlacing) = 597.2 M bps = 74.65 M B/s; Progressive: 24 fps x 6.22 M B = 1.19 G bps = 149.3 M B/s; Longer durations: 8.96 G B/min = 537.48 G B/h H.265 encodes the same information with lower bitrates but the same video quality when compared to H.264, which means H.265 delivers a significantly better visual quality when compressed to the same file size or bitrate. Macroblock: H.264 provides support for 16 x 16-pixel macroblocks which are not work well in higher-resolution video I tried encoding some 4K HDR files using Handbrake and they look washed out. I tried H.265 10 bit, H.265 12 bit, and H.264 10 bit, and they all ended up looking washed out compared to the original file. The original was H.265 encoded with a .ts extension. Handbrake 1.2.2. Any idea what might cause this
Bitrate (or bit rate) — in its simplest term — is how much information your video sends out per second from your device to an online platform. Technically, bitrate means the quantity of data required for your encoder to transmit video or audio in one single second. Bitrates are measured in: bps (bit per second) Kbps (kilobit per second. With Quantization Parameter (QP)=27, the bitrate of H.265 and H.264 are similar (9.66Mbps vs 9.96Mbps) but the PSNR of the H.265 encoded video is lower (40.19 vs 41.8). Why is this occurring? When compared to the original image, the H.265 image is missing small details Adjusting Bit Rate. Since H.265 compression uses roughly 30% fewer resources than H.264, the camera will typically come default to a preset bitrate when switching to H.265. For instance, when switching to H.265 on a 4K camera, the bitrate may be defaulted to 8192 Kb/S, however, adjusting the bitrate to a lower value may help to increase the. Going forward as more companies implement HEVC, lower resolutions will also deliver equivalent quality at half the bitrate of H.264. While H.264 was the codec that originally facilitated OTT and was the making of Netflix and YouTube, high-efficiency video coding could prove to be the codec that, by enabling HD quality, makes unmanaged networks.
As the bitrate is proportional to the required storage usage, H.265 IP cameras with lower bitrate can compress the videos in almost half the file sizes in comparison to H.264 cameras while retaining the original video quality. As mentioned above, H.265 IP cameras provide a lower bitrate than H.264 IP cameras Premiere Pro supports hardware-based decoding for H.264 and H.265 (HEVC) which can significantly improve performance with these codecs, but not all flavors of these codecs are supported depending on the bit depth and chroma subsampling used. In addition, support can change depending on the capability of the hardware in your system. In order to determine exactly what is supported, we decided. HEVC (also commonly referred to as H.265) is available to all customers. HEVC is a next-generation video codec that is capable of delivering higher quality content at lower bitrates than its predecessor, H.264. Encoding recommendations. video_codec_level: constrains the bitrate and coding tree units (CTUs). List of valid values Hi there, the calution formula Bandwidth (Mbps) = Bitrate (Main) * N + Bitrate (sub) *M (N & M represents the number of IP cameras for main stream and sub-stream) applies to both H.264 and H.265 IP security cameras H.265 IP Security Cameras vs H.264 Cameras in Storage Usage. As the bitrate is proportional to the required storage usage, H.265 IP cameras with lower bitrate can compress the videos in almost half the file sizes in comparison to H.264 cameras while retaining the original video quality. H.265 Cameras vs H.264 Cameras in Recording Time Lengt
H.265 (11/19) High efficiency video coding. In force. Superseded and Withdrawn components. Number. Title. Status. H.265 (04/13) High efficiency video coding Using h.265 compression codecs this level of system would be required: Required Network Bandwidth: 128.39 Mbit/s. A respectable 22% reduction in storage savings with h.265 compression over h.264. On a relatively small 30 camera system a 22% bandwidth and storage savings would not be a huge deal. After all not every IP Camera nor video.
Total audio bitrate is the number of audio tracks times the given audio bitrate. You can use this to either represent multiple tracks (for instance languages), or multiple discrete surround channels. Another useful scenario is to determine whether a video file can fit in a fixed-size medium like a DVD-R at acceptable quality Lower values mean the opposite. QP ranges from 0 to 51 in H.264, and you can easily set a fixed QP for your entire encoding process with x264 and x265. Note: libvpx does not have a fixed QP mode. ffmpeg -i <input> -c:v libx264 -qp 23 <output> ffmpeg -i <input> -c:v libx265 -x265-params qp=23 <output>
This is the most commonly used video codec. It provides a good bitrate and helps to keep high-quality video files relatively small. It is very widely supported and you can be confident you will rarely run into any support issues using the H.264. H.265/HEVC. The successor to H.264, HEVC stands for High Efficiency Video Codec When comparing images run at the same bitrate, both VP9 and h.265 are more detailed and crisp than the images produced with h.264. In other words, in order to produce the same quality image of VP9 or h.265, h.264 would need to run at a higher bitrate. However, the difference in quality, while perceivable, is not necessarily an outright problem If so, you will have the same size files. The advantage of H265 is that you can get similar quality at lower bitrates, so try that out. 3. level 2. [deleted] · 3y. I'm thinking bitrate is the thing I need to look at. VidCoder's default UI gives you a fairly unintuitive Quality slider h.264 & h.265 Video Surveillance Storage Calculator. In order to calculate both video surveillance bandwidth and NVR storage, simply specify the following parameters in the video surveillance calculator. Make sure to +add new camera type to account for each type of IP camera and usage in order to accurately calculate the security system.
As for SDR uploads, we highly recommend you a bitrate of 8 Mbps for a standard frame rate video (24, 25, 30 fps) and of 16Mbps for the high frame rate one (48, 50, 60 fps). For HDR uploads, we suggest you a bit rate of 10 Mbps and 15 Mbps for the standard frame rate and high frame rate, respectively. 3 Smart H.265+ - Smart codec, Lower bit rate, Less storage Smart H.265+ Introduction. Smart H.265+ is not a new technology, but an optimized implementation of H.265. Smart H.25+ technology is a collection of intelligent encoding algorithms developed by Dahua Technology based on H.265
H.265 is a high-efficiency video coding technology that has the capability of doubling the compression efficiency of H.264. What this means is that H.265 uses only half the bitrate otherwise used by H.264 when transmitting images of a specific quality. Ergo, H.265 significantly reduces the storage and bandwidth requirements during video. CCTV Calculator is a tool designated for camera system basic parameters determination and testing. It enables easy calculation of an appropriate lens focal length, camera viewing angle, IP camera bandwith, storage capacity for records archiving and of other camera system parameters Bitrate: Enter the bitrate appropriate for your Upload Speed, as we discussed in the previous section. Keep in mind that some platforms have a maximum bitrate (i.e. for Twitch it's currently 6000 Kbps.). Keyframe Interval: Set to 2. Streaming platforms may limit what you can select here, and most require a setting of 2. Preset: Select Quality. Resolution FPS Width Height H.264 Bitrate Standard/High H.265 Bitrate Standard/High Digital Lens Options Zoom* 5k: 30/25: 5120: 2880: NA: 60/100: Wide, Linear, Linear+HL, Narro [image width] x [image height] x [framerate] x [motion rank] x 0.07 = [desired bitrate] where the image width and height is expressed in pixels, and the motion rank is an integer between 1 and 4, 1 being low motion, 2 being medium motion, and 4 being high motion (motion being the amount of image data that is changing between frames, see the.
Cards with this feature set use a combination of the PureVideo hardware and software running on the shader array to decode HEVC (H.265) as partial/hybrid hardware video decoding. VP7. F. Jan-15. Introduced dedicated HEVC Main (8-bit) & Main 10 (10-bit) and VP9 hardware decoding video decoding up to 4096 × 2304 pixels resolution. Advanced Video Coding (AVC), also referred to as H.264 or MPEG-4 Part 10, Advanced Video Coding (MPEG-4 AVC), is a video compression standard based on block-oriented, motion-compensated integer-DCT coding. It is by far the most commonly used format for the recording, compression, and distribution of video content, used by 91% of video industry developers as of September 2019 Recently, after [successfully compiling] the next generation x265 H.265/HEVC video encoder on Windows, Linux and FreeBSD, I decided to ask for guidance when it comes to compressing Anime (live action will follow at a later time) in the Doom9 forums, .Thing is, I didn't understand all of the knobs x265 has to offer, and some of the convenient presets of x264 didn't exist here (like --tune.
MAX Recording Video Settings and Resolutions Capture Type Resolution Frames Per Second (FPS) Size H.264 Bitrate (Low/High) H.265 Bitrate (Low/High) Digital Lens Options Spherical 5.6K* 30/25/24 5376x2688 Not applicable 60 Not applicable Spherical 3.6K 60/50 2272/1472 Not applicable 60 Not applicable.. AVC vs HEVC in quality and bit rate. While HEVC is aimed at being the next-generation standard, AVC compression could be almost half of the HEVC efficiency from this chart. That translates to HEVC can double the quality amount by the same AVC bit rate. Likewise, HEVC retains the same quality in only half of the AVC bitrate Each bitrate has been chosen to be 64% (80% of 80%) of a common Internet link speed (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 5 Mbps etc) in order to make full - but safe - use of that common connection speed. Unlike still images, where we want the smallest good-looking file to have the web page finish loading as quickly as possible, for video we only care that it downloads fast enough to play Thanks to jell.yfish.us the source media file for the H.265 testing is this file here. At 4k resolution (3840×2160) 29.97 fps, 30 seconds long, 400Mbps bitrate, 10 bit and a file size of 1.4GB this video file is rich in its data
Neville Bailey. 22. May 2021. I have installed 3 Hikvision IP cameras and they work perfectly on SS, set up with H.264 and smart event detection. I read that H.265 saves storage space, so I changed my settings from H.264 to H.265, with all other settings unchanged. However, I don't see any storage savings at all - it seems no different to H.264 Constant Quality vs Average Bit Rate. HandBrake supports two modes of encoding video. With the average bitrate, you control the size of the output file but give up control over the video's quality. Constant quality mode does the opposite; you specify a quality level and HandBrake adjusts the bitrate (that is, the size) to meet it As H.265 is more efficient than other codecs, it takes up less bandwidth and much less storage space on a hard drive while maintaining the same video quality. You'll be able to store much more surveillance video in less space, with clearer images and video at the same time. Variable bitrate (VBR Simply put, video bitrate defines video data transferred at any given time. A high bitrate is doubtlessly one of the most crucial factors in the quality of a video. Together with a satisfactory bitrate value, high resolution and frame rate contribute to a good-looking video. Otherwise, they have little effect on the way it looks As a variable bit rate (VBR) codec technology, ProRes uses fewer bits on simple frames that would not benefit from encoding at a higher data rate. All ProRes codecs are frame-independent (or intra-frame) codecs, meaning that each frame is encoded and decoded independently of any other frame
Through our cloud-based management platform Core, you can send a H.265 video stream into Core and use its cloud-based transcoding feature, turning the H.265 stream into H.264 and broadcasting it to your destination(s). By transcoding through the cloud, Core allows you to transport low-bitrate, high-quality HEVC video to Core's infrastructure PRODUCTS COMPARISON CHART. H.265/HEVC encoder - RACK300; H.264/AVC encoder - RACK300 and RACK200; MAIN FUNCTIONS LIVE & AUTO-RECORD. Broadcast premium quality video live over bonded IP networks: 3G/4G-LTE, Ethernet, and satellite networks such as BGAN, GX, and Ka Band To make full use of the bitrate, Hikvision introduces a bitrate concept called Average Bitrate, which is the average bitrate during various time periods (usually 24 hours). To maintain encoding quality for moving targets and reduce storage space, H.264+ analyzes the bitrate of different periods, self-adjusts the bitrate, and allocates spar Max Resolution: 8000×6000 (visual), 640×512 (IR), Bitrate: 120mbps, 10-bit Autel EVO I Drone Details EVO equipped a powerful camera on a 3-axis stabilize gimbal that records video at 4k resolution up to 60 frames per second and a recording speed up to 100mbps in an H.264 or H.265 codec Running in low-latency mode shows an even larger advantage for the T4. It can encode 37 streams at 720p resolution, 17-18 in 1080p, and 4-5 streams in Ultra HD, which is 2-2.7x higher performance than libx264 with higher visual quality. You can see watts per stream charts in figures 15 and 16. Figure 15
Bit Rate Type: Select CBR (Constant Bit Rate) or VBR (Variable Bit Rate) to determine the bit rate type. If you select VBR, select the Quality from 1 (lowest) to 6 (highest). Bit Rate (Kbps): Select the bit rate for each recording stream. A higher bit rate results in a better image, but increases the amount of hard drive space or bandwidth. The video bit-rate required for 8K 60-Hz broadcasting compressed with HEVC is considered to be 80-100 Mbps [Reference Ichigaya and Nishida 4]. Note that the bit-rate for the 8K 60-Hz video in Condition A is 80 Mbps, and this is the same as the lower limit Tools. The max bitrate doesn't mean it will record a great picture at a low quality setting. Frame rate is typically 12 to 15 to get fluid motion. Use the calculator to determine the typical bitrate for your settings. H265+ does use a lot of processing power but saves on bandwidth and storage Smart H.265+ is not a new technology, but an optimized implementation of H.265. Smart H.265+ technology is a collection of intelligent encoding algorithms developed by Dahua technology based on H.265. To meet the characteristics of video surveillance, Smart265+ adopts some key video encoding techniques and thes
Today, the most popular video encoding standard is H.264/AVC. The later version H.265/HEVC has not yet gained large attraction in the surveillance industry, mainly due to complexity, limited lowlight performance, and licensing reasons. 2.3 Bitrate control and Zipstrea Specific bitrate. Use a specific bitrate instead of the example above. Estimate video size! File size for 1 frame. Pixel count. W x H = 1920 x 1080. 2.07 M pixels. Uncompressed. 1920 x 1080 x 24 bit (RGB) 6.22 M B/frame. Youtube HD 1080p25 = 8 Mbps. 19.29 K B/megapixel x 2.07 M pixels. 40 K B/frame By using AVBR, it can save about 30% bitrates compared with VBR. In a nutshell, H.265+ can save approximate 50% bitrate than H.265, which means it can lower bandwidth and storage consumption further. By using H.265+, IP camera can deliver smooth 1080P (30 frames per second) video stream under as low as 500kbps Enter H.265. As data-intensive as HD is, 4K is even worse. While most of us were just getting used to the idea of H.264's advantages over MPEG-2 on Blu-ray, the Motion Picture Experts Group and.
- H.265 protocol converts and compresses the raw file enough to transmit online seamlessly even at average speeds without any visible loss in quality. Speed - A smaller file size can work with lower streaming speeds. A 1080p H.264 live stream would require 8 MB/s bandwidth while the same live stream with H.265 compression would only need 4. H.265 is much better than H.264 because it offers some major improvements over the H.264 codec as follows. File Size : H.265 encodes the same information with lower bitrates but the same video quality when compared to H.264, which means H.265 delivers a significantly better visual quality when compressed to the same file size or bitrate This video walks you through the following.0:09 How to initially setup your Amcrest NVR 6:00 Optimize video settings on your NVR by changing compression fr..
The Constant Rate Factor (CRF) is the default quality (and rate control) setting for the x264 and x265 encoders, and it's also available for libvpx. With x264 and x265, you can set the values between 0 and 51, where lower values would result in better quality, at the expense of higher file sizes. Higher values mean more compression, but at. A codec's bitrate can seriously affect your workflow, so as a video creator you must be able to understand and calculate video bitrates.This article explains in detail what a bitrate is and how to use it to calculate file sizes, and it's a follow-up to our huge article on How to Choose the Right Codec for Every Project.But, if you're just here for the formulas, you can find them right here Video Bitrate Calculator. With this little calculator you can calculate the bitrate of a video based on the length, the resolution and other parameters. We found this script in our archives, maybe it is useful for someone, esp. as Silverjuke supports videos now Step 1: Calculate the Video Bitrate Lower bitrate can be used for streams with lower level of motion (in example for presentations, conferences, calls with static background). Transfer. Bitrate is usually in bits (8 data bits = 1 byte space). Obtain generated transfer by diving bitrate to 8 bits/byte. Ex. 8Mbitsps generates 1Mbyte/s transfer (1000000b/s) and file size when recording
Davinci Resolve Studio supports hardware-based decoding for H.264 and H.265 (HEVC) which can significantly improve performance with these codecs, but not all flavors of these codecs are supported depending on the bit depth and chroma subsampling used. In addition, support can change depending on the capability of the hardware in your system 3. Play H.265 WebRTC stream in Android Device. With the new Android SDK, you don't need to do anything. Just add your server address to the MainActivity and change the mode to Play and open the Activity. It'll play the H.265 Encoded WebRTC on your Android Device. You can even check the incoming and outgoing SDPs to see the HEVC parameters. A video bitrate is the number of bits that are processed in a unit of time.Remember that 1 byte consists of 8 bits. Video data rates are given in bits per second. The data rate for a video file is the bitrate. So a data rate specification for video content that runs at 1 megabyte per second would be given as a bitrate of 8 megabits per second. H.263 H.264 H.265 are the Video Compression Standard or H.263 H.264 H.265 are also known as codec. These terms are defines encoding technique. These three encoding techniques are based on quality and bandwidth. H.265 is more efficient than H.264 likewise H.264 is more efficient than H263. Where H.265 is very much expensive to use
HEVC/H.265, MPEG4 AVC/H.264 video encoding format. Support B frame GOP, high video compression ratio and stable bitrate. MPEG-1 Layer 2, LC-AAC, HE-AAC, HE-AAC V2, AC3 Passthrough audio encoding format. 1 ASI output (optional) as copy of MPTS. IP output over UDP and RTP/RTSP protocol. Support QR code, LOGO, closed caption insertio A lossy video codec like h.265 isn't very similar to simple lossless compression like ZIP. x264 does benefit in general from running in 10-bit mode even when the original source is 8-bit, and so is the final display (but again, you shouldn't expect the same CRF to give the same bitrate or the same quality at different depths) The theory is that you should be able to set a lower quality setting (i.e. lower bitrate) with h265 and get the same result as you did before with h264. As I understand it, the quality setting on the 900S uses the same bitrate in both h264 and h265 modes. It is up to you to choose a lower quality setting if you are using h265
It's time now to run a comparison of HEVC versus H.264 file sizes. Chances are, you've heard about the H.265 video codec, otherwise known as High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC).You've likely. The benefits of H.265. H.264 has been a huge success. It's a flexible codec standard that's used by streaming services, satellite providers, and for Blu-ray discs Bitrate (bit rate or as a variable R) is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per second. The symbol of video bitrate is bit/s. In most environments, 1 byte consists of 8 bits. Video bitrate is the amount of video data transferred for a unit of time. Usually, it determines the quality as well as the size of video/audio files The new H.264/MPEG-4 AVC offers significant bit rate and quality advantages over all previous standards. The standard is expected to be ratified by ISO in early- to mid-2003. Initial products based on the standard are available now. Conclusion H.264 Entropy Coding - Comparison of Approache Stable Bitrate 24 HDMI HEVC H.265 MPEG4 AVC H.264 to DVB-C DVB-T ATSC ISDB-T Modulation Encoder Modulator. Product Overview. HP824IU is a professional high integration device which includ es encoding, multiplexing, and modulation in one body. I t supports up to 24 HDMI input, one DVB-C/T/ISDB-T (ATSC optional) tuner input and up to 512 IP input for re-mux
Key Improvements: - 40-50% bit rate reduction compared to MPEG-2 - Led the growth of HD content delivery for Broadcast and Online. Drawbacks: Unrealistic for UHD content delivery due to high bit rate requirements. Frame rate support restricted to 59.94. X265(H.265/HEVC) Introduction: MPEG-H, HEVC, Part 2 (Approved in Jan 2013 ) The Program Usage chart. The Active PID chart. PIDs in red are scrambled. The Video Composition chart in this case showing an MPEG-2 GOP. The Video Bitrate chart. The Mux Usage chart. Another view of PID usage, this time as a 3D pie chart. TSReader Pro displaying a mosaic view via VLC H.265 is more efficient and thus can produce the same quality stream as H.264 using half the bitrate. For example, if you want to send out a 1080p stream, that would typically average a bitrate of about 4-5Mbps if you use H.264 video compression, whereas the same 1080p stream can be sent at 2-3Mbps if you use H.265 The following chart shows the maximum number of streams which can be achieved by the system with one and two GPUs. Technical specifications Compressed input formats: H.264 (AVC) , H.265 (HEVC) , VP8, VP9 and older MPEG2 and VC1 There are other things to consider for increasing the bitrate, such as the compression algorithm (H.264, H.264+, H.265, etc.) and the variation of the activity of the monitored scene, and I will discuss more about it later
Thus, we will increase that pipeline by adjusting the bitrate accordingly, as shown in the chart above. Example: 1920 x 1080 at 60 FPS requires a bitrate or 12,288 Kb/s while the same resolution at 30 FPS only requires a bitrate of 8,192 Kb/s. We are transmitting less information and thus the bitrate can be smaller Using bitrate instead of RF really makes sense when you've got a target filesize in mind. Generally do a 2-pass encode here - a fast first pass is fine unless you absolutely have to hit an exact output size. Keep in mind that at some point the audio bitrate can become a limiting factor (you'd want to include this in the bitrate calculator) HEVC (originally called H.265) was invented to help solve this problem. HEVC was designed so that a file with 30% lower bit rate would display the same image quality as an H.264 file at the higher bit rate. The data obtained through subjective visual testing shows that when the bit rate is reduced by 51-74%, the quality of H.265 encoded video can be similar to or better than that of H.264 encoded video, which is essentially better than expected The signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is better
With Leawo Video Converter Ultimate, you could convert H.265 videos to H.264 or MPEG4 videos for Sony TV. It even allows you to adjust the video and audio parameters of output files including video codec, bit rate, aspect ratio, frame rate, resolution, audio codec, audio bit rate, etc., so as to let you get exactly what Sony TV needs H.264/H.265 Video Codec Unit v1.2 Solutions LogiCORE IP Product Guide Vivado Design Suite PG252 (v2020.2) November 24, 2020 See all versions of this documen Watch H.265 on Android phones using H.265 Decoder Besides installing an H.265 player on smartphone to achieve H.265 playback on Android, you can also convert H.265 to Android phone supported format with an H.265 Decoder program. Pavtube Video Converter Ultimate is a good choice. This software can fulfill all your needs of viewing H.265 video on. The test clips were encoded with Handbrake in H.264 and H.265 for comparison at 11 different CRF values, evenly spaced from 8 to 48 inclusive (i.e. spaced by 4). For both formats, the preset was set to Very Slow, and encoding tuning was not used. The H.264 profile selected was High/L4.1, whereas for H.265, the profile selected was Main